A separate global health system will help prevent and predict about the outbreaks to come and save the costly human life to end untimely
Today, every nation of the world wants to prevent pandemic not only for the present but also for all the time, preferably, forever. In the context pandemic prevention is a group of preventive measures that do not stop the outbreak of the pandemic but surely minimize its negative effects on human life through pandemic preparedness and its effective mitigation. Under the conditions, chances of new infections are marred and it checks epidemics from becoming pandemics. Earlier too, during the SARS-CoV in the year 2003, preventive methods adopted by the states all over the world worked well. The action plan introduced by nations and international agencies like WHOhelped to slow the speed of transmission and ultimately blocked the chain of the pandemic.
Policy and strategy of prevention
The prevention of any epidemic or pandemic needs policy-making and its implementation at various levels in the government and outside. It includes infrastructure and international development, technologies, policy and economics, artificial induction of immunity, culling, role of organisations, people and their concepts. Of all the measures, the development of infrastructure and international co-operation are most important because every outbreak of infection gave some time to contain the disease and it largely depends on good global network, exchange of right information, coordination between bureaucracy and effective timely treatment. Even in the year 2012 it was proposed to develop a global health -care infrastructure and changes to the pathogen- related dynamics which focus on studying relations between humans and their environment along with developments in animals. There are many developing and underdeveloped countries which are vulnerable to several infectious diseases due to scarcity, but have no facility of investigation or testing which cast a dark shadow on developed nations too for want of global health care system. Thus, a separate global health system will help prevent and predict about the outbreaks to come and save the costly human life to end untimely. The pathogen mechanism, if done properly, gives us an early warning and its signal helps the nations as well as international agencies for pre-outbreak preparations.
This apart, works on immunity subsystems, testing and containment, surveillance and mapping are other aspects of preventive measures. In March 2020 the scientists of Stanford University have discovered that CRISPR- based immune subsystem is also helpful in Covid-19. As the scientists claimed that they have adopted a flexible and efficient approach and targeted RNA with CRISPR-Cas. This technology is useful for molecular biology and also applicable for better targeting of virus RNA or human RNA. Under the strategy of testing and containment timely testing is done at large scale to break the chain of the virus and adopt further strategy of its containment. In this process it is better to use high discovery thermal scanners for having desired results. However, in the context no less important is surveillance and mapping in which close eyes are kept on those people who always live near and around the animals. By monitoring the people, we can get an early notice about the time the virus enters in human and other symptoms emerged in humans and animals simultaneously. To a large extent it helps us in preventing the pandemic by giving us early signal for preparation.
Role of other factors
Other factors that affect the spread of infectious diseases include the overall or general health policy of the government, environmental status, data on current causes of its emergence, food markets and wild animal trade and they all play an important role in fomenting the virus. The government of the day should be conscious enough to follow the guidelines and advisory issued by the scientists and research lab operators from time to time. They issue warnings much earlier to the actual outbreak of any epidemic /pandemic and even for the current situation a study revealed in the year 2007 that availability of large amount of SARS-CoV- like viruses in horseshoe bats and the habiting of eating exotic mammals in southern China may come with health hazards in future. Although at that time it was ignored or overlooked but it proved fatal for the humanity today. In line,the environmental issues and climate change are becoming harmful because it has brought the human close to animals and wildlife which increases the chance becoming infected or transmitted anywhere in the society. Contemporary society has changed itself totally due to over use of mobiles, increasing density, various kinds of human interactions with wildlife and alterations in worldly natural setup in a big way. Further on the issue the United Nations is also active in formulating nature -focus policies to prevent the pandemic and its strategies include conserving ecosystems and wilderness along with other areas still untouched by the human. In addition, there should be a strong state policy to maintain safety standards in consumer goods and arrangements for mass education for changed behaviour, food habits, life style, with lesser use of antibiotics. Studies have shown that huge plantation and protection of wildlife are more safe way to prevent the epidemic/pandemic.
Need of international co-operation
As the nations of the world are unequal and dissimilar in all aspects they need maximum cooperation and help during the days of epidemic /pandemic from rich nations as well as from international agencies. It is essential to improve global ability detect, respond and prevent the infectious diseases. Earlier in the year 2014 the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) has been established. Although, it is an international network signed by 67 countries, but with its foundation, funding system remained weak or reduced. Several famous international personalities including Bill Gates have urged the nations in pre and post pandemic phase to invest in the system and speed up coordination among nations of the world to fight and prevent coronavirus- typeinfectious diseases. In the context they also urged major world powers to pay into the global insurance fund which will meet the economic losses of nations incurred due to closure of businesses and travel. For its further use arrangements may also be made at national and regional levels to recover the in post- pandemic phase. Especially for the period like Covid-19 the US Senator Dianne Feinstein also suggested to set up a new interagency government entity to deal with such type of exigency. This world body will analyse and combine the operational tasks of the agency and look after the aspects of detecting, preventing, monitoring and responding to major outbreaks. Another institution, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) keeps data of diseases and the global health security can take help from CDC in combating the pandemic.
Even in the present prevalence of coronavirus everywhere in the world-minor, major or severe prevention is better than mitigation. Mitigation of pandemic is a way of treatment which reduces the severity if the disease impacts on masses. In nutshell, it is based on the ‘wait and respond’ approach which harms more in case of pandemics like Covid-19. In the context it is a globally accepted fact that prevention in place of mitigation should be adopted effectively to win over the diseases like coronavirus which warrants us to prepare sufficiently if there is a distant possibility of its outbreak and let the world know about its truths. It is itself a way of preventing the pandemic.
(Author is Professor and Head, University Department of Political Science, B.N. Mandal University, Madhepura Bihar)